Skin is the largest organ of the body. It protects the valuable organs like a fine cloth. Any injury, burns, trauma, and surgeries cause scars. In some cases, if the scar is small it can be concealed, over a period it starts diminishing whereas big scars are always worrisome. The disfiguring scars are treated with many surgical and non-surgical options.
As the first task, the Skin specialist evaluates the scar. Soon after diagnosing the scar type, the dermatologist will suggest the patient with the precise treatment. Based on the size of the wound, injury location, skin type, age, sex, and genetics, clinical treatment option is determined.
Different types of scars are treated with both surgical and non-surgical interventions
Topical therapy: Silicone sheet or gel is used to heal the skin to alleviate the redness, minimize hypertrophic or keloid scar. To get the effective results, silicone sheet or gel should be placed over the scar for at least 12 hours a day for three months continuously.
Cryotherapy: It is otherwise called cryosurgery in which extreme cold is applied to treat or destroy the keloids. This therapy is done alone or combined with Intralesional corticosteroids to manage the hypertrophic scars and keloids.
Intralesional agents: Intralesional steroid injections contain corticosteroids reduce the scar formation by deterring the inflammatory condition with the aid of collagen synthesis, mediators.
Ablative laser: CO2 and erbium lasers are the two most commonly used ablative lasers for atrophic and acne scar reduction. Ablative lasers work by destroying the epidermis to a certain depth, reducing some amount of scar.
Non-ablative lasers: Pulsed dye laser (585 nm), Nd: YAG (1064 nm and 1320 nm) or Er: Glass (1540 nm) are Nonablative Lasers, which are used as laser therapy for hypertrophic scars and keloids.
Dermabrasion – This technique is used to level and smooth the abnormality of the scar surface and uneven edges of the skin.
Microdermabrasion – In this procedure, it is performed using either a pressurized stream of aluminum oxide crystals in the treatment of superficial acne scars.
Fusiform/elliptical excision – It is an effective way to remove lesions with deep and lateral surgical margins. The excision shape lends itself to a linear repair that can be aligned for a pleasing cosmetic result.
Skin graft – In this method, healthy skin is removed from a particular area of the patient’s body and transplanted to the scar area. Mostly from the upper arm, forearm, leg, inner thigh and buttocks the skin is grafted.
Skin Flap– It is similar to skin graft where tissue is transplanted. In Skin Flap procedure, the flap exists on its own blood supply which means a larger amount of tissue can be transplanted including muscle in the required case.